教育

[ 切換欄目 ]
您當前的位置 > 首頁 > 備考資料 > 考研英語欄目列表

(2017)考研英語閱讀理解精讀100篇(基礎版)在線閱讀 印建坤 第4部分

時間:2017-08-03 00:05:46  編輯:同創考研網  來源:網絡

難句突破

If someone's score places him in a group in which a known proportion has gone on to commit a crime on release from detention, then the risk that person will prove a recidivist is thought to be similar to the risk for the group as a whole.

主體句式:If someone's score places him in a group… then the risk is thought to be similar to…

結構分析:這個句子分為逗號前后的兩個部分,其中的每一個部分包含一個定語從句。前半個句子中,in which引導的定語從句修飾group;而后半句中,that person will prove a recidivist 作為同位語從句修飾risk。

句子譯文:如果一個人的分數屬于出獄后犯罪率很高的一組,那么此人是慣犯的幾率就大體上和這組的整體幾率相同。

題目分析

1. C 細節題。根據文章第一、二段的內容,風險預測對于個人的預測錯誤率極大,幾乎完全不可靠。選項B錯誤的原因在于文章里面沒有直接說明風險預測是否對于群組人有效。

2. A 推理題。文章第四段中舉了兩個測試的具體情況,這兩個測試分別進行了7到10年和5到15年,因此都是長達多年的跟蹤性試驗。A選項longitudinal的意思為“長度的;縱長的”,可以引申為長時間的。

3. D 細節題。文章第四段第一句話指出哈特博士的實驗“follow this logic”,“this logic”指的正是第三段最后一句話,即“如果一個人的分數屬于出獄后犯罪率很高的一組,那么此人是慣犯的幾率就大體上和這組的整體幾率相同”,也就是說,如果組內差異較小的話,關于組的風險預測可以推及到組內的個人。

4. B 細節題。根據文章第五段,如果將群體的標準方法用于個體,最終得到的結果是具有誤導性的。D選項提到的confidence level“置信度”是一個統計上的參數,與本題并無關聯。

5. C 細節題。C選項的信息來自文章的最后一句話,A life-insurance company, for instance, could wrongly predict the life span of every person it insured but still get the correct result for the group,即“例如,一個人壽保險公司也許不能準確預測每個投保人的壽命長度,但它可以對群體做出準確預測。”

參考譯文

過去的付出并不代表未來的收獲,這至少可以給投資者一些啟示。但一個人的犯罪動機能通過他過去的記錄來預測嗎?一個臨床法醫心理學家小組的回答是否定的。風險預測不僅站不住腳,而且即使是只用于個體而不是群體,其誤差之大也會導致結果失去意義。

只有當一組數據內部差異程度相對較小時,據此做出的對個體的判斷通常才會比較可靠。盡管如此,人們還是例行公事地用風險評估來輔助決定誰應該坐牢、誰應該接受治療以及誰可獲得自由。風險預測同樣用于評估從嫌疑恐怖分子到潛在罪犯的各種威脅。

加拿大不列顛哥倫比亞省西蒙弗雷澤大學的斯蒂芬·哈特和他的同事決意要找出用于個體而非群體的風險評估測試的準確性到底有多大。這些測試先根據個人年齡、社交經歷、犯罪史以及所選擇的受害者類型等因素給人們打出一個分數。如果一個人的分數屬于出獄后犯罪率很高的一組,那么此人是慣犯的幾率就大體上和這組的整體幾率相同。

哈特博士和他的同事在上月的《英國精神病學雜志》上發表了一篇論文,主要介紹了按照這一邏輯進行的兩個有名實驗。第一個實驗包括12項內容的測試,用來評估7至10年間的一般暴力風險;第二個實驗包括10項相關內容的測試,用來評估5至15年間的暴力和性暴力風險。研究人員也評估了用來預測性侵犯和家庭暴力的其他一些測試。

他們發現每組成員間的差別很大。比如在其中一項測試中,被測小組成員15年內再次進行性侵犯的概率估計是36%。在95%的置信度下,他們計算出的實際范圍是在30%與43%之間。但計算群體的平均概率要比計算個體的概率容易得多。因此,如果將群體的標準方法用于個體,同樣在95%的置信度下,他們計算出一個人是慣犯的幾率在3%與91%之間。很明顯,看似準確的原始數據有很大的誤導性。

這個原理不僅專用于心理學,也已被統計學家認可了數十年之久。他們稱其為生態學謬論(盡管這個術語還有更廣泛和精細的意義)。醫學也被基于統計學的程序搞得一團糟。實際上,這個技術只有在成功和失敗都綜合起來的時候才真正有用。例如,一個人壽保險公司也許不能準確預測每個投保人的壽命長度,但它可以對群體做出準確預測。

Unit 58

Sloth may be seen as a sin, but some of history's most accomplished men were fond of lounging around. Leonardo da Vinci enjoyed napping. So did Albert Einstein and Winston Churchill. Richard Buckminster Fuller advocated taking 30-minute naps every six hours. He is reported to have abandoned the practice only because “his schedule conflicted with that of his business associates, who insisted on sleeping like other men.”

No one has yet proved a correlation between napping and artistic brilliance or professional success, but an intriguing study published this week in the Archives of Internal Medicine claims to find a link between daytime siestas and good health. A team of researchers led by Androniki Naska of the University of Athens Medical School and Dimitrios Trichopoulos of Harvard's School of Public Health followed over 23,000 Greek patients with no history of coronary disease, cancer or stroke, for an average of six years. Their conclusion: napping just might save your life.

The study found that the group of adults who took siestas (defined as 30-minute naps) at least three times a week had a third fewer deaths from heart disease than an equivalent group who did not sleep at all during the day. The benefit was greater for men than for women. (Whether women benefited at all was hard to estimate as there were too few deaths among them during the course of the study.) It was also greater for working men than for those who had retired. However, a number of previous studies done in the Mediterranean and in parts of Central America (where siestas remain common) have come up with conflicting results, but Dr Naska and Dr Trichopoulos argue that those studies have often been flawed. The subjects in some, for example, had survived heart attacks and may therefore have benefited more from napping than healthy individuals do.

Given that all of the subjects of this new study were Greek, could the much-celebrated Mediterranean diet deserve credit, rather than the siestas? The firm answer from Dr Trichopoulos is “No”. And he is in a good position to say so, for it was he who did the pioneering research that put olive oil and a plant-based diet on the scientific map in the first place. Unlike some other siesta studies, his was controlled for diet, smoking, exercise and other relevant variables. The earlier findings about the benefits of the Mediterranean diet are confirmed, he says, and napping seems to help on top of that.

Before buying a sofa for the office, however, it might be wise to consider the possibility of selection bias. Dr Trichopoulos concedes that “Type A”personalities, whose hard-working lives may make them prone to heart attacks, are also much less likely to take naps during the day. That bias might be skewing the study's results. Even so, he advises, “Take a nap if you can.”

注(1):本文選自Economist;

注(2):本文習題命題模仿對象為2004年真題Text 1。

1. What do scientists expect to achieve in the study of daytime siestas?

A) They want to prove that siestas help people become smarter.

B) They want to prove that siestas can make people happier.

C) They want to prove that siestas may prolong people's life.

D) They want to prove that siestas help cure some diseases.

2. Which of the following is TRUE about taking nap regularly?

A) One's possibility of dying from heart diseases is smaller.

B) One is surely to enjoy a long life with the habit of taking siestas.

C) Whether siestas benefit women is still unknown due to the limited member of women participating the test.

D) A working man usually outlives a working woman of similar age if he has the habit of siestas.

3. The expression “lounging around”(Lines 1~2, Paragraph 1) most probably means_______.

A) sleeping a lot

B) taking a nap every few hours

C) relaxing oneself

D) being lazy

4. Why is Dr Trichopoulos in a good position to deny the benefit from Mediterranean diet in this case?

A) Because the research Dr Trichopoulos has done on napping is more convincing.

B) Because Dr Trichopoulos is a forerunner of research on Mediterranean diet.

C) Because Dr Trichopoulos knows nothing about the nutritious value of Mediterranean diet.

D) Because Mediterranean diet is notorious for its unhealthiness.

5. Which of the following is TRUE according to the text?

A) The research fails to apply universally because it only studies a limited scope of sample that is short of representativeness.

B) Most of those who have great achievements usually have the habit of taking siestas regularly.

C) People who work under great pressure benefit more from napping than the retired.

D) Dr Trichopoulos's siesta study conflicts with previous studies, which mitigate the credibility of his study.

篇章剖析

本文是一篇說明文,主要介紹了一個關于午睡和健康關系的最新科學研究。第一段介紹了歷史上一些名人都有午睡的習慣;第二段介紹了納斯卡和特里克伯羅斯進行的實驗,說明午睡可以延長人們的生命;第三段對研究進行補充說明,同時對之前結論與此相反的研究進行說明;第四段對相反的研究結論進行批駁論證;第五段中特里克伯羅斯博士指出了可能導致報告結果歪曲的偏見,并提出自己的建議——讓人們盡量午睡。

詞匯注釋

sloth /sl??θ/ n. 怠惰,懶惰

lounge /la?nd?/ vi. 懶洋洋地躺臥,閑蕩

nap /n?p/ n. / v. (白天)小睡,打盹

correlation /?k?r??le???n/ n. 相互關系,相關

siesta /s??est?/ n. 午睡

coronary /?k?r?n?ri/ adj. 冠的,花冠的,冠狀的

stroke /str??k/ n. 中風

equivalent /??kw?v?l?nt/ adj. 相等的,相當的

flaw /fl??/ vt. 使有缺陷,使無效

bias /?ba??s/ n. 偏見

prone /pr??n/ adj. 有…傾向的

skew /skju?/ v. 曲解;歪曲

難句突破

The study found that the group of adults who took siestas (defined as 30-minute naps) at least three times a week had a third fewer deaths from heart disease than an equivalent group who did not sleep at all during the day.

主體句式:The study found that…

結構分析:這個句子的主要內容集中于that后面的賓語從句,其中該從句的主體結構為the group of adults had a third fewer deaths than an equivalent group。從句中的第一個who引導的定語從句用來修飾第一組成人的情況,其中注意到括號中的內容是對siestas的概念定義;從句中的第二個who引導的定語從句用來修飾第二組成人的情況。

句子譯文:研究表明,那些每周至少午休3次,且每次至少睡30分鐘的成人組與日間從不午休的成人組相比,由心臟病致死的幾率低了1/3。

題目分析

1. C 細節題。文章第二段最后,作者明確指出科學家們的結論是午休有可能延長人們的壽命。A選項的表述是一個沒有得到證實的說法,B和D選項的陳述都沒有在文章中提到。

2. A 細節題。文章第三段第一句話提到,午休較多的人比從來不午休的人由心臟病致死的幾率低了1/3,因此A選項正確。B選項的表述過于肯定,文章(第二段最后一句話)只是提出了一個可能性而已。C選項前半句正確,但是后面原因表述錯誤,真正的原因是因為幾乎沒有女性在實驗過程中死亡。D選項錯誤在于文章第三段指出男人從小睡中獲得的好處比女人更多,但這并不意味著他們的壽命會比女人更長。

3. D 語義題。lounge有懶散、懶洋洋的意思,從上下文中也可以推出這個意思。盡管文章接下來也提到了一些名人喜歡小憩的習慣,但是A和B選項都不足以概括lounge的原義。

4. B 細節題。根據文章第四段,特里克伯羅斯博士是科學研究地中海飲食的先驅人物,而且其研究具有重大的貢獻性,因而他的結論也就更加具有說服力。

5. C 細節題。文章第三段指出,在工作的人們比退休人士從午休獲益更為明顯。A選項的錯誤原因在于文章沒有提到這一點。B選項的錯誤原因在于并不是大部分有成就的人都有午休的習慣,文章第一段只是舉了四個名人的例子。D選項的錯誤原因在于雖然特里克伯羅斯博士的研究與前人的研究結論有矛盾,但是他充分指出了前人研究的漏洞,從而說明自己的研究成果更加具有說服力。

參考譯文

懶惰也許會被認為是一種罪過,但是歷史上一些最成功的人士卻喜歡懶洋洋地躺臥著。列奧納多·達·芬奇喜歡小寐,阿爾伯特·愛因斯坦和溫斯頓·丘吉爾亦如此。里查德·巴克敏斯特·福勒提倡每隔6個小時就小睡30分鐘。據說他后來放棄了這個習慣僅僅是因為“他的日程安排與那些堅持和別人有一樣作息時間的同事有沖突。”

沒有人能夠證明小寐與杰出的藝術才能或者事業上的成功有關系,但是本周發表在《內科醫學檔案》上一份引人入勝的研究報告聲稱發現了日間午睡與健康之間的一種聯系。一個由雅典醫科大學的安德羅尼基·納斯卡和哈佛公共衛生學院的季米特里奧斯·特里克伯羅斯所領導的研究小組對23,000名沒有冠心病、癌癥或者中風記錄的希臘病人進行平均長達6年的研究。研究結論表明:午休有可能延長你的生命。

研究表明,那些每周至少午休3次,且每次至少睡30分鐘的成人組與日間從不午休的成人組相比,由心臟病致死的幾率低了1/3。男性從午睡中的獲益比女性更加明顯。(由于女性在整個研究過程中死亡數量很少,因此女性是否從中獲益難以估計。)男性上班族比退休人士的獲益更為明顯。但是,在午休仍然普遍的地中海地區和中美洲的部分地區曾進行過的一些研究得到的卻是相反的結論,不過納斯卡博士和特里克伯羅斯博士認為這些研究都存在問題。比如,一些曾經有過心臟病發作史的研究對象從小睡中的獲益相對于那些健康人要明顯得多。

考慮到所有的研究對象都是希臘人,特里克伯羅斯博士所在研究小組所得結論的主要因素是否是馳名的地中海飲食而不是午休呢?他堅定地回答說“不”,而且,他的回答是令人信服的,因為正是他開創性地將橄欖油和素食為主的飲食放到科學領域內來進行研究。與其他關于午休的研究不同的是,他的研究控制了飲食、吸煙、運動和其他相關的變量。他說,早前關于地中海飲食益處的研究已經得到了肯定,而小睡在飲食的基礎上也起到了非常重要的作用。

然而,在給辦公室添置沙發之前,最好還是先考慮一下選擇性偏見的可能性。特里克伯羅斯博士認為那些辛勤工作從而易于發心臟病的“A型”人士,在白天小睡比較少。這些偏見也許會歪曲研究報告的結果。即便如此,特里克伯羅斯博士還是建議:“如果可以的話就小睡一會吧。”

Unit 59

Whether you are a gorilla, a four-year-old child, a politician or an Olympic athlete, the signs of victory are obvious for all to see: the chest inflates, the head is thrown back and the victor displays a strutting and confident air. Shame at being defeated is equally recognizable: the head bows, and sometimes the shoulders slump and the chest narrows too——something that is not a million miles away from the cringing postures associated with submission in animals, from chimpanzees to rats, rabbits and even salamanders. Are these displays of pride and shame common to all humans? If they are, they will have evolved to serve some function.

The past week in Beijing demonstrates that different cultures do indeed show similar displays of pride and shame. But it is difficult to say if these reactions are instinctive or learnt. Jessica Tracy at the University of British Columbia and David Matsumoto at San Francisco State University decided to explore this by comparing pictures of blind and sighted athletes from different cultures.

In their research, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team analyzed images from the judo competition held in the 2004 Olympic and Paralympic Games. They looked for whether or not competitors indulged in post-match behavior such as tilting their heads back, raising their arms or expanding their chests in victory, or hiding their face or narrowing their chests in defeat. They found that in response to success and failure, people from different cultures displayed the stereotypical gestures of pride and some of the components of expressions of shame. This included the blind competitors——even those blind from birth.

Although the researchers say that congenitally blind children might have been taught by their parents to lift their hands above their heads after a victory, they speculate that it would be harder to teach them the full spectrum of displays they witnessed. These findings, then, imply that displays of pride are not simply cultural stereotypes learnt after birth, but an innate form of behavior that was relevant to the way humans lived. A display of pride (or shame), in other words, may be an evolved and innate behavioral response.

Why? Such displays may have an evolutionary function. People could be advertising their accomplishments and ensuring their status and acceptance within their social group. Similarly, shame shows acceptance of a defeat and a reluctance to fight on (which may help to avoid further aggression), and so might well be a display of submission.

The researchers also found that the behavioral response to shame was weaker in sighted athletes from cultures that were individualistic——or “self-expression valuing”——societies in the West. They suggest that athletes from these parts were suppressing responses in accordance with “cultural norms”that stigmatize displays of shame. If so, this would explain why the congenitally blind displayed more shame in defeat than did people who became blind later in life.

Culture has a lot to do with displays of victory, whether it is the two-fingered “V”salute or footballers removing their clothing. Both are culturally influenced, but they have their roots in showing exactly who is on top.

注(1):本文選自Economist;

注(2):本文習題命題模仿對象為2004年真題Text 4(個別題目順序加以調整)。

1. The ways humans of different cultures display the expressions of pride and shame are______.

A) learnt

B) identical

C) alike

D) instinctive

2. We can infer from the text that the object of the study is to______.

A) discover whether displays of pride and shame are culturally determined or innate

B) find out how differently blind and sighted athletes would display pride and shame

C) pinpoint how being blind can influence people's specific behaviors

D) compare the behaviors of athletes from different cultural backgrounds

3. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, according to the text, is probably______.

A) a manual on scientific research

B) an academic conference

C) an online academic forum

D) an academic journal

4. According to the text, people display pride or shame probably because______.

A) they are in favor of evolutionary progress

B) they want to be accepted by a social group and protect themselves

C) they are required by their culture to show these emotions

D) they want to fight for victory and avoid failure

5. What can we learn from the last two paragraphs?

A) Culture is ultimately accountable for human display of pride and shame.

B) The fact that culture still exerts influence on human display of pride and shame undermines the conclusion of the research.

C) Culture plays a part in shaping the way people display their pride and shame.

D) Congenitally blind people display more shame in defeat than those who become blind later in life because they have different genes.

您當前的位置 > 首頁 > 備考資料 > 考研英語欄目列表
浙江11选5技巧